Who invented money?
Before invention of money, various materials from seashells to metals were used as materials for exchange. The Lydians invented the first money. According to historical records, the Chineese used leather money in B.C. 118. The first paper money was also invented in China in A.C. 806. Paper money was printed and used for the first time in west at the end of 17th century. According to historians, the earliest nation widely using gold and silver coins was the ancient Greeks living in the Anatolian and the Aegean basins. Until recently, it was accepted that Orhan Bey was minted the first coins of the Ottomans based on the coins found. According to a coin which has been found recently, it has been definitely determined that the first coin was minted during the era of Osman Bey. After these coins, the Seljuk coins in circulation were slowly removed from market. After Fatih Sultan Mehmed Khan conquered Istanbul, he minted the first 23 carat gold coin in 1478 instead of the silver coin which was used until that time. The titles such as khan, sultan and etc. started to be used on the coins called as akçe and sikke in the era of the First Sultan Murad. During the era of Sultan Fourth Murad, the Grand Vizier Kemankeş Ali Paşa minted new coins called Para to take place of silver coins called akçe. Also during the same era, other coins called as Kuruş were minted. The name of Lira started to be used for the first time during the era of Sultan Third Ahmed. These names continued to be used until our age.

Monetary Markings and Abbreviations: Most of the monetary values have their own marking or abbreviation. Currency symbols are used for these. For example;
₺ for Turkish Lira (TRY)
£ for Pound (GBP)
$ for the United States Dollar (USD)
¥ for Yuan (JPY)
€ for Euro (EUR)
₦ for Naira
₹ for Indian Rupee (INR)

Country or territory,Currency,ISO-4217
Afghanistan,Afghan afghani,AFN
Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK),European euro,EUR
Aland Islands (Finland),European euro,EUR
Albania,Albanian lek,ALL
Algeria,Algerian dinar,DZD
American Samoa (USA),United States dollar,USD
Andorra,European euro,EUR
Angola,Angolan kwanza,AOA
Anguilla (UK),East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Antigua and Barbuda,East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Argentina,Argentine peso,ARS
Armenia,Armenian dram,AMD
Aruba (Netherlands),Aruban florin,AWG
Ascension Island (UK),Saint Helena pound,SHP
Australia,Australian dollar,AUD
Austria,European euro,EUR
Azerbaijan,Azerbaijan manat,AZN
Bahamas,Bahamian dollar,BSD
Bahrain,Bahraini dinar,BHD
Bangladesh,Bangladeshi taka,BDT
Barbados,Barbadian dollar,BBD
Belarus,Belarusian ruble,BYN
Belgium,European euro,EUR
Belize,Belize dollar,BZD
Benin,West African CFA franc,XOF
Bermuda (UK),Bermudian dollar,BMD
Bhutan,Bhutanese ngultrum,BTN
Bolivia,Bolivian boliviano,BOB
Bonaire (Netherlands),United States dollar,USD
Bosnia and Herzegovina,Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark,BAM
Botswana,Botswana pula,BWP
Brazil,Brazilian real,BRL
British Indian Ocean Territory (UK),United States dollar,USD
British Virgin Islands (UK),United States dollar,USD
Brunei,Brunei dollar,BND
Bulgaria,Bulgarian lev,BGN
Burkina Faso,West African CFA franc,XOF
Burundi,Burundi franc,BIF
Cabo Verde,Cape Verdean escudo,CVE
Cambodia,Cambodian riel,KHR
Cameroon,Central African CFA franc,XAF
Canada,Canadian dollar,CAD
Caribbean Netherlands (Netherlands),United States dollar,USD
Cayman Islands (UK),Cayman Islands dollar,KYD
Central African Republic,Central African CFA franc,XAF
Chad,Central African CFA franc,XAF
Chatham Islands (New Zealand),New Zealand dollar,NZD
Chile,Chilean peso,CLP
China,Chinese Yuan Renminbi,CNY
Christmas Island (Australia),Australian dollar,AUD
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia),Australian dollar,AUD
Colombia,Colombian peso,COP
Comoros,Comorian franc,KMF
"Congo, Democratic Republic of the",Congolese franc,CDF
"Congo, Republic of the",Central African CFA franc,XAF
Cook Islands (New Zealand),Cook Islands dollar,none
Costa Rica,Costa Rican colon,CRC
Cote d'Ivoire,West African CFA franc,XOF
Croatia,Croatian kuna,HRK
Cuba,Cuban peso,CUP
Curacao (Netherlands),Netherlands Antillean guilder,ANG
Cyprus,European euro,EUR
Czechia,Czech koruna,CZK
Denmark,Danish krone,DKK
Djibouti,Djiboutian franc,DJF
Dominica,East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Dominican Republic,Dominican peso,DOP
Ecuador,United States dollar,USD
Egypt,Egyptian pound,EGP
El Salvador,United States dollar,USD
Equatorial Guinea,Central African CFA franc,XAF
Eritrea,Eritrean nakfa,ERN
Estonia,European euro,EUR
Eswatini (formerly Swaziland),Swazi lilangeni,SZL
Ethiopia,Ethiopian birr,ETB
Falkland Islands (UK),Falkland Islands pound,FKP
Faroe Islands (Denmark),Faroese krona,none
Fiji,Fijian dollar,FJD
Finland,European euro,EUR
France,European euro,EUR
French Guiana (France),European euro,EUR
French Polynesia (France),CFP franc,XPF
Gabon,Central African CFA franc,XAF
Gambia,Gambian dalasi,GMD
Georgia,Georgian lari,GEL
Germany,European euro,EUR
Ghana,Ghanaian cedi,GHS
Gibraltar (UK),Gibraltar pound,GIP
Greece,European euro,EUR
Greenland (Denmark),Danish krone,DKK
Grenada,East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Guadeloupe (France),European euro,EUR
Guam (USA),United States dollar,USD
Guatemala,Guatemalan quetzal,GTQ
Guernsey (UK),Guernsey Pound,GGP
Guinea,Guinean franc,GNF
Guinea-Bissau,West African CFA franc,XOF
Guyana,Guyanese dollar,GYD
Haiti,Haitian gourde,HTG
Honduras,Honduran lempira,HNL
Hong Kong (China),Hong Kong dollar,HKD
Hungary,Hungarian forint,HUF
Iceland,Icelandic krona,ISK
India,Indian rupee,INR
Indonesia,Indonesian rupiah,IDR
International Monetary Fund (IMF),SDR (Special Drawing Right),XDR
Iran,Iranian rial,IRR
Iraq,Iraqi dinar,IQD
Ireland,European euro,EUR
Isle of Man (UK),Manx pound,IMP
Israel,Israeli new shekel,ILS
Italy,European euro,EUR
Jamaica,Jamaican dollar,JMD
Japan,Japanese yen,JPY
Jersey (UK),Jersey pound,JEP
Jordan,Jordanian dinar,JOD
Kazakhstan,Kazakhstani tenge,KZT
Kenya,Kenyan shilling,KES
Kiribati,Australian dollar,AUD
Kosovo,European euro,EUR
Kuwait,Kuwaiti dinar,KWD
Kyrgyzstan,Kyrgyzstani som,KGS
Laos,Lao kip,LAK
Latvia,European euro,EUR
Lebanon,Lebanese pound,LBP
Lesotho,Lesotho loti,LSL
Liberia,Liberian dollar,LRD
Libya,Libyan dinar,LYD
Liechtenstein,Swiss franc,CHF
Lithuania,European euro,EUR
Luxembourg,European euro,EUR
Macau (China),Macanese pataca,MOP
Madagascar,Malagasy ariary,MGA
Malawi,Malawian kwacha,MWK
Malaysia,Malaysian ringgit,MYR
Maldives,Maldivian rufiyaa,MVR
Mali,West African CFA franc,XOF
Malta,European euro,EUR
Marshall Islands,United States dollar,USD
Martinique (France),European euro,EUR
Mauritania,Mauritanian ouguiya,MRU
Mauritius,Mauritian rupee,MUR
Mayotte (France),European euro,EUR
Mexico,Mexican peso,MXN
Micronesia,United States dollar,USD
Moldova,Moldovan leu,MDL
Monaco,European euro,EUR
Mongolia,Mongolian tugrik,MNT
Montenegro,European euro,EUR
Montserrat (UK),East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Morocco,Moroccan dirham,MAD
Mozambique,Mozambican metical,MZN
Myanmar (formerly Burma),Myanmar kyat,MMK
Namibia,Namibian dollar,NAD
Nauru,Australian dollar,AUD
Nepal,Nepalese rupee,NPR
Netherlands,European euro,EUR
New Caledonia (France),CFP franc,XPF
New Zealand,New Zealand dollar,NZD
Nicaragua,Nicaraguan cordoba,NIO
Niger,West African CFA franc,XOF
Nigeria,Nigerian naira,NGN
Niue (New Zealand),New Zealand dollar,NZD
Norfolk Island (Australia),Australian dollar,AUD
Northern Mariana Islands (USA),United States dollar,USD
North Korea,North Korean won,KPW
North Macedonia (formerly Macedonia),Macedonian denar,MKD
Norway,Norwegian krone,NOK
Oman,Omani rial,OMR
Pakistan,Pakistani rupee,PKR
Palau,United States dollar,USD
Palestine,Israeli new shekel,ILS
Panama,United States dollar,USD
Papua New Guinea,Papua New Guinean kina,PGK
Paraguay,Paraguayan guarani,PYG
Peru,Peruvian sol,PEN
Philippines,Philippine peso,PHP
Pitcairn Islands (UK),New Zealand dollar,NZD
Poland,Polish zloty,PLN
Portugal,European euro,EUR
Puerto Rico (USA),United States dollar,USD
Qatar,Qatari riyal,QAR
Reunion (France),European euro,EUR
Romania,Romanian leu,RON
Russia,Russian ruble,RUB
Rwanda,Rwandan franc,RWF
Saba (Netherlands),United States dollar,USD
Saint Barthelemy (France),European euro,EUR
Saint Helena (UK),Saint Helena pound,SHP
Saint Kitts and Nevis,East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Saint Lucia,East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Saint Martin (France),European euro,EUR
Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France),European euro,EUR
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,East Caribbean dollar,XCD
Samoa,Samoan tala,WST
San Marino,European euro,EUR
Sao Tome and Principe,Sao Tome and Principe dobra,STN
Saudi Arabia,Saudi Arabian riyal,SAR
Senegal,West African CFA franc,XOF
Serbia,Serbian dinar,RSD
Seychelles,Seychellois rupee,SCR
Sierra Leone,Sierra Leonean leone,SLL
Singapore,Singapore dollar,SGD
Sint Eustatius (Netherlands),United States dollar,USD
Sint Maarten (Netherlands),Netherlands Antillean guilder,ANG
Slovakia,European euro,EUR
Slovenia,European euro,EUR
Solomon Islands,Solomon Islands dollar,SBD
Somalia,Somali shilling,SOS
South Africa,South African rand,ZAR
South Georgia Island (UK),Pound sterling,GBP
South Korea,South Korean won,KRW
South Sudan,South Sudanese pound,SSP
Spain,European euro,EUR
Sri Lanka,Sri Lankan rupee,LKR
Sudan,Sudanese pound,SDG
Suriname,Surinamese dollar,SRD
Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway),Norwegian krone,NOK
Sweden,Swedish krona,SEK
Switzerland,Swiss franc,CHF
Syria,Syrian pound,SYP
Taiwan,New Taiwan dollar,TWD
Tajikistan,Tajikistani somoni,TJS
Tanzania,Tanzanian shilling,TZS
Thailand,Thai baht,THB
Timor-Leste,United States dollar,USD
Togo,West African CFA franc,XOF
Tokelau (New Zealand),New Zealand dollar,NZD
Tonga,Tongan pa’anga,TOP
Trinidad and Tobago,Trinidad and Tobago dollar,TTD
Tristan da Cunha (UK),Pound sterling,GBP
Tunisia,Tunisian dinar,TND
Turkey,Turkish lira,TRY
Turkmenistan,Turkmen manat,TMT
Turks and Caicos Islands (UK),United States dollar,USD
Tuvalu,Australian dollar,AUD
Uganda,Ugandan shilling,UGX
Ukraine,Ukrainian hryvnia,UAH
United Arab Emirates,UAE dirham,AED
United Kingdom,Pound sterling,GBP
United States of America,United States dollar,USD
Uruguay,Uruguayan peso,UYU
US Virgin Islands (USA),United States dollar,USD
Uzbekistan,Uzbekistani som,UZS
Vanuatu,Vanuatu vatu,VUV
Vatican City (Holy See),European euro,EUR
Venezuela,Venezuelan bolivar,VES
Vietnam,Vietnamese dong,VND
Wake Island (USA),United States dollar,USD
Wallis and Futuna (France),CFP franc,XPF
Yemen,Yemeni rial,YER
Zambia,Zambian kwacha,ZMW
Zimbabwe,United States dollar,USD

Fake Currency means fixed or imitated money which seems having monetary value while on contrary does not have any value. The purpose of people using this money is to deceive others on actual value of it. If any fake currency is used, it means that it is currently in circulation. It is global crime to print and put fake currency into circulation or prepare it for circulation.

Since around B.C. 2500s, when people in Egypt and Mesopotamia began using gold and silver as currency for the first time in history, tax collection custom has become much easier.
The history of humanity could not resolve its biggest problem 'taxation' completely since the first ages. Until the time, when Egyptians began exchanging their valuable belongings for labor five thousands of years ago.
Unfortunately, invention of money has also created robbery. In the first ages, temples served as the first banks of the history. Therefore, temples were frequently plundered by robbers.
Around B.C. 1750s, churches began providing loans through popes for the first time in history.
Paper money was invented in China for the first time around 806s. Approximately three centuries after, Marco Polo was shocked when he saw paper money during his China journey.
Inflation has emerged in China during the 15th century when paper money becomes globally widespread.
Currently, total average value of metal and paper US Dollar circulating in all world markets is around 829 billions of US Dollars.
Two third of this amount circulates in overseas countries.
The highest bacteria population of the world is on US Dollars. In other words, the most contaminated money of the world is "the United States Dollars".
Around 1916s, the money could be washed, ironed and even reprinted in Washington.
The US Dollars are not produced from wood. It contains 75 percent cotton and 25 percent synthetic material.
In 1949, a man, Mr. Frank McNamara took his friends out to diner in New York. But, when he forgot taking any money with him, he developed an interesting method. Mr. McNamara who felt embarrassed to his friends, invented a club card called "Diner's Club Card" which makes it unnecessary to spend cash. This card system established the credit card system which we currently use.
Under the ‘Diner’s’ card, 14 restaurants got together and three US Dollars card fee collected from the holders of this card.
A Scottish inventor, Mr. John Shepherd- Barron invented the first ATM in history for the Barclay Bank in London. There were not any plastic cards in these ATMs. Checks with a special carbon-14 security system were used.

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